HVAC Systems

Viscera Energy provides a good HVAC system that aims to provide thermal control and indoor comfort

HVAC Systems

HVAC systems are milestones of building mechanical systems that provide thermal comfort for occupants accompanied with indoor air quality. HVAC systems can be classified into central and local systems according to multiple zones, location, and distribution. Primary HVAC equipment includes heating equipment, ventilation equipment, and cooling or air-conditioning equipment. Central HVAC systems locate away from buildings in a central equipment room and deliver the conditioned air by a delivery ductwork system. Central HVAC systems contain all-air, air-water, all-water systems. Two systems should be considered as central such as heating and cooling panels and water-source heat pumps. Local HVAC systems can be located inside a conditioned zone or adjacent to it and no requirement for ductwork. Local systems include local heating, local air-conditioning, local ventilation, and split systems

For most people, heating and cooling will account for as much as half of the energy they use. With this in mind, it’s important to choose a HVAC system that will meet your comfort needs, without drawing on excess power and escalating your cost of living.




Heat pumps are an efficient system that extracts heat from a cold space (such as the outdoors during winter), and then warms and releases it into a room so as to control the temperature inside. When used for heating, heat pumps use the same refrigeration-type cycle that is used in an air conditioner, but rather than release the air outside as a cooling system would do, it pushes air in the opposite direction (i.e. back into the room to be heated).

Heat pumps can also be used for cooling a room, reversing the flow of air to again expel the heated air that is brought into the system. Their real strength, however, benefits those who are in need of heating, as heat pumps can be up to four times as efficient in their use of power than more traditional heater systems.

Rooftop units are also often known as air handlers, and as their name suggests, they’re a large HVAC system that is placed on a rooftop in order to moderate the temperature of a large space. Inside the big boxes that you see on top of office or apartment buildings are a blower, heating and cooling elements, filter racks, and chambers and dampers.

These boxes typically connect with a ductwork ventilation system, that will then distribute the air through the building before returning it to the box to either discharge or return air back into the system (depending on the model).

For those who are interested in sustainable cooling and/or heating, the water source heat pump - or broadly, any geothermal heat pump - is the way to go.

Water source heat pumps are relatively uncommon as they require proximity to a body of water; geothermal heat pumps, however, are rapidly escalating in popularity. Regardless of whether it’s a system drawing on water or the ground, these pumps offer both heating and cooling systems that transfer heat into or out of the ground by taking advantage of the more moderate temperatures of the earth to boost the efficiency of the system.

Taking this system one step further, however, would involve drilling down to create a bore near the HVAC system. The cooled water underneath the earth could then be drawn on by the system to provide drinking water and feed an open-loop heat pump. This would take the heat from the water and use it to raise the heat in a home’s water system, providing heating and hot water. Excess grey water can then be used for irrigation for the garden.

Packaged air conditioners look a little like the rooftop units, but are designed for smaller domestic use. Where window and mini split air conditioners are good for small room cooling of up to around five tonnes, central air conditioning systems are designed for loads in excess of 20 tonnes. For that reason, the packaged air conditioner has been designed to accommodate the needs of anyone who fits between those two frames.

Packaged air conditioners with water cooled condensers are, as the name suggests, air conditioners in which the condenser is cooled by water. Water needs to be supplied constantly so as to keep these air conditioners in working order. These air conditioners are generally installed inside buildings.

Packaged air conditioners with air cooled condensers, meanwhile, are cooled by the atmospheric air and are therefore outdoor units. These devices have a fan that sucks in air before blowing it onto the condenser coil, much like in the larger rooftop units. These are the more popular of the two types of packaged air conditioners, as they don’t need constant maintenance to ensure a smooth flow of water.

The term ‘split system’ simply refers to an air conditioning unit where key components are separated and deployed in different places. They come in two forms - mini split (also called a ‘ductless system’) and a central system, as illustrated above.

Central systems are ducted systems that are designed specifically around cooling the space, and are able to offer multi-zone temperature control capability through the use of air-louver-control boxes. This is good for spaces that are used sporadically, and they can be ‘switched off’ when nobody is using the space so as to save on costs.

The smallest of all systems, the ductless or mini split air conditioner is designed for small deployments such as a single large room, or multiple small rooms. They require minimal wall space, and the compressor and heat exchanger unit can be located further away from the main building, allowing greater flexibility in use.

This is the main type of air conditioner you’ll find on the market, as it’s explicitly designed for home use and fits into the consumer mass-consumption model. These systems are easy to install, even as a home project, and the internal unit is aesthetically pleasing as it forms part of the furniture. The downside to ductless systems is that they can cost more to operate than central systems. However, as with other split systems, these are the only option for customers looking to retrofit existing buildings, as they don’t require the installation of ducts.

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Viscera Energy Ltd Is an Energy Operations & Maintenance Limited aimed at providing engineering & manufacturing solutions  or critical & severe service applications within the industries.


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